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Монгол улс (mongol uls)
Mongol Ulus in traditional mongolian Mongol Ulus

Mongolian flag

Mongolian flag

Coat of arms Mongolia

Coat of arms Mongolia

Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Official language: Mongolian
Area: 1,564,115.75 km2
Population: 2,921,287 (2013)
Density: 1,84/km2 (2013)
Currency: Tögrög (MNT) (Төгрөг)
Time zone: UTC+7 to +8

Mongolia – “Land of the blue sky” is landlocked country squeezed between China and Russian federation. It is large country (1.565 million km²) slightly smaller than Alaska or the three times area of France. Although Mongolia is famous for their wide endless steppes, you can find there also high mountains (over 4000 m), large forests, deserts or beautiful lakes.

People in Mongolian countryside are mostly kind and have “common sense” – living in nature teaches you, what is important at what is not. People in Ulaanbaatar are very diverse. You can see old people (formerly lived in countryside) in classic robes selling cigarettes on the street or modern young Mongolians indistinguishable from any other “urban people” in the world.

Mongolians are largely Buddhist or shamanist. Buddhist monasteries are practically in each city or bigger village, sometimes it can be found separately from settlement. In Ulaanbaatar is over 30 Buddhist monasteries, largely built after fall of communist rule.

Geography of Mongolia

Mongolia is land of contrasts – blue skies, snowy mountains, wide treeless steppes, forests, sand dunes, fresh and salt water lakes, rivers full of fish, millions of livestock, horses and sheeps and rich wildlife.

Mongolia is 19th largest country and it is situated on the plateau with average elevation of 1580 meters. The capital Ulaanbaatar is situated at an altitude of 1350 meters. The geographic of Mongolia is formed mostly by steppes. Cold and mountainous regions are in the north and west and Gobi desert in the south.

There is three dominant range of mountains in Mongolia. The Altai Mountains (Алтайн нуруу) in western and the southwestern regions with highest mountain called Khüiten Peak (Хүйтэн оргил) – 4374 m – the highest mountain in Mongolia. The Khangai Mountains (Хангайн нуруу) in central Mongolia with tallest mountain Otgontenger (Отгонтэнгэр) – 4008 m. And The Khentii Mountains (Хэнтийн нуруу) in central and northern Mongolia with highest peak called Asralt Khairkhan (Асралт хайрхан) – 2799 m.

Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags (Аймаг) which are again divided into 329 sums (Сум). See the map of Mongolian aimags and sums.

Mongolsko - Stručná historie států, Michal Schwarz, Libri, Praha 2010
Colloquial Mongolian, The Complete Course for Beginners, Alan J. K. Sanders and Jantsangiin Bat-Ireedüi, London 1999

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