Mongolian language


Welcome to our Mongolian language course! Simple course of Mongolian with an emphasis on practicality.

The Mongolian language (in mongolian: Монгол хэл) is the official language of Mongolia. Mongolian language belongs to Altaic language family together with Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, and Japonic language families and the Korean language isolate. Outside of Mongolia is Mongolian language used in Inner Mongolia in China, there are over five million speakers. In Inner Mongolia is still used the Classical Mongolian Script. In Mongolia, since 1941, is used a modified Cyrillic alphabet.

About Mongolian language

Mongolian language has two typical features – agglutination and vowel harmony.

Agglutination means that the word stems are invariable and inflection is achieved by the addition of single or multiple suffixes to the word stem – for example: хий – do, make, хийх – to do, to make, хйсэн – did, made, хийдэг – is doing, is making, хийгээд – do it and then, etc.

Vowel harmony means that all the vowels in a word stem, and any suffixes attached to it, belongs to one class of either “back – masculine – strong” or “front – feminine – weak” vowels, which are not mixed. Masculine vowels (эр эгшиг in Mongolian) are а, о, у (for example гудамж – street, гудамжаас – from street) and feminine ( эм эгшиг in Mongolian) are э, ө, ү (for example хөвсгөл – lake Hövsgöl, хөвсгөлөөс – from Hövsgöl).
Sources:
MODERN MONGOLIAN: A COURSE-BOOK, John Gaunt and L.Bayarmandakh, London 2004
MONGOLIAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, Charles Bawden, London 1997
MONGOLSKO-ČESKÝ A ČESKO-MONGOLSKÝ KAPESNÍ SLOVNÍK, Praha
“МОНГОЛ ХЭЛНИЙ УНШИХ БИЧИГ”/ ГАДААДЫНХАНД ЗОРИУЛАВ, Д.Нямаагийн хамт/, УБ., 2003 он. 10 х.х.
COLLOQUIAL MONGOLIAN – AN INTRODUCTORY INTENSIVE COURSE, Jugderiin Lubsandorji, Jaroslav Vacek, Praha 2004
MONGOLIAN GRAMMAR, D. Tserenpil, R. Kullmann, Ulaanbaatar 2005

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