Mongolian alphabet

To write Mongolian, Cyrillic alphabet is used. This replaced the original traditional Mongolian script, although still used in Inner Mongolia in China.

There are several systems of transliteration Mongolian Cyrillic into Latin characters. I decided to use a transliteration from the book MODERN MONGOLIAN: A COURSE-BOOK, John Gaunt and L.Bayarmandakh, London 2004.

Cyrillic Latin Pronunciation
Aa a As in the exclamation “ha!”
Бб b The first letter of English “box”
v Between English “v” and “w”
Гг g As English “k” when final or “g” in word “egg”
Дд d As English “d” – “Dalailama”
Ee ye/yö As the first sounds of English “yes” or “yearn”
Ëë As the first two letters of “yomp”
Жж j As English “j” in “joke”
Зз z As the last two letters of “beds”
Ии i As the vowel sound in English ‘peak’
Йй i Used in diphthongs and long ‘ii’ sounds
Кк k As English “k”
Лл l As English “l” but with the tongue further back
m As English “m”
n When final, as the “ng” of “song“, otherwise “n”
Oo o As in English “box”
Өө ö Approximately the “u” in English “fur”, but shore
Пп p As English “p”
Pp r Rolled, as in Russian or Italian, or Scottish
Cc s As English “s” in “song”
t As the “t” in English “tool”
Уy u As the vowel sound in English “fall”, but short
ü As the vowel sound in English ‘fool’, but short
Фф f As English “f” in “first”
Xx h Like “ch” in “loch”, sometimes spelled as kh, h in the Latin script
Цц ts As the last two letters in English “pots”
Чч ch The first and last sounds in English “church
Шш sh The “sh” of “English”
Ьь ’(soft sign) Adds a hint of an “i” to the preceding vowel
Ыы i As “i” in “in”
Ъъ “(hard sign) Rare. Occurs only in certain verb endings. Will be dealt with then.
Ээ e As the “e” in English “fell”
Юю yu/yü As the English “yaw” or “you”, but both short
Яя ya As in the English “yah”

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